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The Gritman Dental Articulator

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Designed By:
A.D. Gritman and George Snow
Manufactured By:
Snow Dental Company Buffalo, NY
US Patent:
Patent Date:


This "fixed condylar guide" articulator was patented and introduced by George B. Snow and Abel DeWitt Gritman with the Snow facebow in 1899. The Gritman articulator featured descending condylar paths of 15 degrees, an average determined by measurements taken from a large number of patients. The condylar paths also included a slight Balkwill-Bennett angle to represent the average oblique descent of the condyle. The Snow facebow is highly regarded at the first "true" facebow because it was designed to actively transfer the anatomic relationship of the maxilla to the condyles from the patient to the articulator.

Lateral view, open position. Note the posterior verical stop.
Posterior view showing the horizontal condylar tension spring used to retain the articulator in the centric position.
Anterior - superior view, closed position.
Detail of condylar mechanism. It is a straight non-adjustable slot of about 15 degrees.

Dr. Edgar N. Starcke's articles in the Journal of Prosthodontics have more information on the history of articulators.