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The Hall-House Precision Articulator Produced in 1920's

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Designed By:
Rupert E. Hall
Manufactured By:
S.S. White Dental Manufacturing Company, Philadelphia, PA
US Patent:
Patent Date:


This articulator has two pivotal points. The lower pivotal point represents the opening and closing axis of the glenoid fossa. The upper pivotal point was claimed to be in the vicinity of the occipital protuberance and provides the lateral rotation center. This design is based upon Hall's “conical” theory, an arbitrary theory of mandibular movement and was inspired by Monson's “Spherical” theory of 1898. The vortex of the cone is located at the upper pivotal point and the maxillary denture teeth would be set coincident with a segment of an arc of the inner surface of an 8-inch cone. The lateral wings of the incisal guide table are 45-degrees to the horizontal plane. This is the “generating angle” of the cone. This mounting jig was designed by Hall for orienting the casts to the articulator at the level of the lower pivotal point (hinge axis). He claimed it eliminated the need to use a face-bow.

This instrument adds several structural improvements to the "Automatic Anatomic Articulator” offered by M.M. House, including an unobstructed posterior view of the mounted casts. None of the basic features reflecting the conical theory were altered. House also suggested a mechanism for longitudinally adjusting the lower cast holder for grinding teeth to compensate for retrusive movements of the mandible.

Lateral view, closed position.
Lateral view, open position. The hinge axis is at the level of the occusal plane.
The Hall-Houst Precision Articulator Produced in 1920's.
 Posterior view, closed position. This model has the wide body feature. Note the relative positions of the horizontal hinge axis and single lateral rotation center. The two wings above the lateral rotation cylinder is on
Detail of the incisal pin and guide. The incisal table has a fixed lateral wings at 45 degree that represented the “generating angle” of the 8-inch cone.
Detail of House's lower cast holder retrusive movement controls.

Dr. Edgar N. Starcke's articles in the Journal of Prosthodontics have more information on the history of articulators.